When a patient has surgery performed by a surgeon of the opposite sex, the outcomes tend to be worse, especially when it’s a female patient and a male surgeon. In a new study published in the journal JAMA Surgery, researchers at the University of Toronto found that women had a 15 percent higher relative risk of complications after surgeries performed by male rather than female surgeons. While it is difficult to know exactly why the outcomes were worse, the complexity or performance of the procedures didn’t seem to be the difference. It’s possible that male surgeons might not fully appreciate the severity of symptoms in female patients and not recognize problems after surgery as well. Anyone undergoing surgery, whether male or female, needs to fully explain all symptoms they are having, both before and after surgery, to ensure the best outcomes.